The region’s average per capita consumption of printing and writing paper enhanced from 1.Four kg in 1962 to 6.7 kg in 1992, while the world average rose from Five kg to 12.8 kg over the same period. The range in per capita consumption within the region is large, from 76.Two kg in Japan and 65.Three kg in Singapore to 0.Four kg in Bangladesh and 0.1 kg in Myanmar in 1992. Like newsprint, the level of consumption of printing and writing paper bears a close relationship to the economic level, as evidenced by the much higher consumption in developed than in developing countries.
The main consumers in the region are Japan (9.Four million metric tons), China (Five.9 million), India (1.1 million), the Republic of Korea (987 thousand metric tons), Australia (763 thousand metric tons), and Indonesia (588 thousand metric tons). Significant increases in consumption have occurred in Japan, China and the Republic of Korea since 1982. The combined consumption of these three countries accounted for 81 % of the regional total in 1992, compared to 74% in 1982.
Table 71. Production of printing and writing paper, in thousand metric tons, 1962-1992.
Korea Dem People’s Rep
Papua Fresh Guinea
The Asia-Pacific region produced about Nineteen mmt of printing and writing paper in 1992, 94% of its total consumption (Table 71). In the past decades, production paralleled consumption, and more than doubled inbetween 1982 and 1992, while the world production rose by 74%, most countries in the region have been relatively self-sufficient in this paper grade, especially during the 1960s and 1970s. The leading producers in 1992 were Japan (9.6 million metric tons), China (Five.Five million), and India and the Republic of Korea with 1 million metric ton each. In terms of growth, the Republic of Korea’s production tripled during the 1980s, while production in both Japan and China more than doubled. Other countries with prompt growing production were Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand.
Table 72. Imports of printing and writing paper, in thousand metric tons, 1962-1992.
Because of the self-sufficiency noted above, regional imports in 1992 were Two.1 million metric tons or slightly more than 10% of consumption (Table 72). However, imports have been enhancing, and they accounted for less than 8% of consumption in 1962, but 9% in 1972. China led all countries in imports in 1992 with 518 thousand metric tons, followed by Australia with 496 thousand, Singapore and Hong Kong with 220 thousand each, and Malaysia and Fresh Zealand with 160 thousand each. China switched from net exporter to net importer and became the region’s largest importer almost over night, as shown in Figure 14. There were basically no imports of printing and writing paper in China before 1983. Since then, however, imports have risen steadily, and reaching 550 thousand metric tons in the early 1990s. Net imports accounted for 6% of China’s total consumption in 1992. This was mainly due to the accelerated domestic consumption, especially in the prompt growing southern provinces where the printing and publishing industry is developing at an unprecedented rate.
Figure 14. Imports of printing and writing paper in China, 1961 – 1992.
Singapore and Hong Kong have been historically net importers and have no domestic production capacity. Around 17% of the imports by Singapore and Hong Kong were re-exported and the rest were consumed domestically.
The Asia-Pacific imported printing and writing paper mostly from the European Union, according to Table 73, almost 40 % of the total. Imports from North America accounted for about 9 % and imports from other parts of the world 23 %.
The region exported only 848 thousand metric tons of printing and writing paper in 1992, less than half what it imported (Table 73). Japan and the Republic of Korea appeared to be the region’s largest exporters, with 239 and 104 thousand metric tons, respectively, in 1992 (note: the UN data in Table 74 demonstrate Japan with 716 and Republic of Korea with 177 thousand metric tons in the same year). China and Indonesia also exported significant amounts that were not recorded in the UN statistics shown in Table 74.
Over 67% of Japan exports went to countries in the region, while 6% went to North America, and Two.3% to the European Union. Similarly close to 62% of the Republic of Korea’s exports went to the Asia-Pacific, and about 7% was shipped to the United States (Table 74).
Table 73. Exports of printing and writing paper, in thousand metric tons, 1962-1992.