Then you do data analysis. There are different methods for this, but i will discuss a popular one: grounded theory. In qualitative research data can be textual, interview-gathered, observation, things you hear (audio) and very likely some other things that don’t come to mind. The advantage is therefore that you can lightly gather the data through the internet for example (good when you have a limited amount of time) and the data is naturally occuring. This means that it hasn’t been created in an artificial context like an interview for example. After you have analysed your data extensively you formulate hypotheses, and go back to the data and test these hypothesis again. If you find perverted cases you adjust your hypotheses and go back to the data again untill no abnormal cases are found.
This is when you can commence summing up your findings. This is when the literature review comes in. Since qualitative researchers can’t do statistical generalization, they tend to generalize their findings to different contexts and/ or theories. To generalize to a theory you can read up on literature and see how your findings relate to certain written research in the field.
In qualitative schools you generally commence with an introduction. In this introduction you generally write the research problem, the relevance and embed it into what has been written by others. Then you ask a research question. Similar criteria apply to the research question, albeit the question is less open-ended than in qualitative. After the introduction you write your methodology section. This is significant in quantitative research, because you specify exactly how you went about your research, and this makes the research trustworthy (an significant criteria in quantitative research). In this section you specify how you have gathered your data, what data, what are the limitations of data collection. Also you write how you have analyzed the data (this doesn’t mean what software you use. but what tests have you done to analyse, and why). After the methodology section you write down your findings in detail, and end with a conclusion.
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